• Bitter Orange

    Bitter Orange

    Synonyms: Aurantii Fructus Immaturi, Chih Shih, Chin Chiu, Fructus Aurantii Immaturi, Immature Bitter Orange, Jih Shih, Neroli, Orange Peas, Satsuma Mandarin, Zhi Shi, Zhishi Fruit

    Family: Rutaceae

    Genus species: Aegle sepiaria, Citrus aurantium, Citrus trifoliata, Citrus vulgaris, Citrus wilsonii, Poncirus trifoliata, Citrus aurantium subsp. amara, Citrus natsudaidai, Citrus unshiu (Satsuma Mandarin)

    Type: Deciduous tree

    Part Used: Dried, unripe fruit

    Location: China, Israel, Japan, Portugal, southern Europe, Spain, West Indies

    Actions: Adrenergic, antemetic, antiallergic, antidiarrheal, antifertility activity (was once used as a component of contraceptives), antifungal, antihistaminic (inhibits release of histamine transmitter substances), antitussive, appetite suppressant, aromatic bitter, bactericide, bronchodilator, cancer preventative, capillary protectant, cardiotonic, carminative, decongestant, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, enhances vitamin C absorption, expectorant, flavor enhancer, helps remove and metabolize fat in adipose tissue, hypertensive, increases amino acid uptake into muscles, increases metabolic rate, lipolytic, nervine, purgative, stomachic, uterine stimulant, vasoconstrictor, weight loss aid

    Indications: Abdominal pain, allergies, anal prolapse, angina pectoris, anorexia, asthma, cancer, chest congestion, cholecystitis, common cold, constipation, cough, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, hematochezia, hemorrhoids, hernia, hypochlorhydria, indigestion, nausea, obesity, orchitis, overeating, prolapsed uterus, rectal prolapse, rectocele, splenitis, stomachache, tenesmus

    Chemicals & Nutrients: Calcium, Carbohydrates (50%), Fats (0.4%), Fiber, Hesperidin, Phosphorus, Potassium, Protein (3%), Vitamin C

    Preparation & Dosages:

    Decoction: 4-8 g, in 3 doses

    Drug: 4-6 g

    Tincture: 1:5, 70% ethanol, 2-3 g dose

    Contraindications: Stomach or intestinal ulcers, pregnancy.

    Drug Interactions: Due to the diuretic action of this herb the following drug interactions are possible: increased risk of toxicity with anti-inflammatory analgesics; if hypokalemia occurs possible antagonism with antiarrhythmics and potentiation of muscle relaxants; antagonizes antidiabetic (hypoglycemic) drugs; may potentiate and/or interfere with antihypertensives; may potentiate lithium therapy; when taken with corticosteroids there is a risk for hypokalemia; may potentiate other diuretics and increase the risk of hypokalemia. Due to the cardioactive chemicals in this herb the following drug interactions are possible: interference and/or antagonism with antiarrhythmics; antagonism of beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs; potentiation of cardiac glycosides and increased risk of hypokalemia; when combined with depolarizing muscle relaxants there is a risk of arrhythmia; interference with nitrates and calcium-channel blockers; may increase the potential terfenadine has to cause arrhythmias. Preparations of this herb may antagonize antihypertensive drugs and nitrates and calcium-channel blockers, and when combined with sympathomimetics there is an increased risk of hypertension.

    Side Effects: (Possible adverse effects and/or overdose effects) Photosensitization, especially in people with fair skin.

    Safety: Citrus aurantium is GRAS.