• Hawthorn Berries

    Synonyms: Crataegus Fruit, English Hawthorn, Fructus Oxyacanthae, Oneseed Hawthorn, Whitethorn Berries

    Family: Rosaceae

    Genus species: Crataegus laevigata (English Hawthorn), Crataegus oxycantha, Crataegus monogyna (Oneseed Hawthorn), Crataegus oxyacanthoides

    Type: Shrub

    Part Used: Fruits

    Location: Bulgaria, former U.S.S.R., former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Poland, Romania

    Actions: Analgesic, antiarrhythmic, anti-arteriosclerotic, antiatherogenic, antibacterial, antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertensive, antilipemic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, astringent, bradycardic, cardiotonic, circulatory stimulant, constricts bronchioles, coronary vasodilator, digestive, diuretic, negatively chronotropic, peripheral vasodilator, positively bathmotropic, positively chronotropic, positively dromotropic, positively inotropic (cardiac), potentiates the action of digitalis, respiratory depressant, sedative, stomachic, uterosedative

    Indications: Abdominal distention, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, blood clotting, Buerger's disease, cardiac disorders, circulatory disorders, coronary heart disease, diarrhea, dropsy, dyspepsia, enteritis, essential hypertension, heart failure, heart palpitation, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipemia, hypertension, hypotension, indigestion, insomnia of nervous origin, mild bradyarrhythmia, myocardial weakness, paroxysmal tachycardia, Raynaud's syndrome, rheumatism, sore throat, sores, urinary tract disorders

    Chemicals & Nutrients: Bioflavonoids, Calcium, Carbohydrates (90%), Fats (4%), Fiber (11%), Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Protein (1.5%), Starch, Sugar, Tyramine, Vitamin C

    Contains proanthocyanidins that inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), an enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, thus increasing the oxygen supply to the myocardium.

    Preparation & Dosages: (adult minimum daily dose: 5 mg hyperoside, 10 mg total flavonoids, 5 mg oligoleric procyanidins)

    Dried Fruits: 0.3-1 g or by infusion, 3x/day

    Liquid Extract: 1:1 in 25% alcohol, dose 0.5-1 ml, 3x/day

    Tincture: 1:5 in 45% alcohol, dose 1-2 ml, 3x/day

    Contraindications: Lactation, pregnancy, heart disease.

    Drug Interactions: Potentiates the actions of digitalis (extract of Digitalis purpurea), a powerful cardiac stimulant and diuretic. May interact with existing treatment for cardiovascular disorders including hypertension, hypotension, arrhythmia, ischemia, etc. There is a potential risk of increased hypertension when used with beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs. Possible potentiation of sympathomimetics and an increased risk of hypertension. Cardioactives may potentiate cardiac glycosides, interfere or antagonize antiarrhythmic drugs, increase the risk of hypokalemia, antagonize beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs, interact with depolarizing muscle relaxants and increase the risk of arrhythmias, interfere with nitrates and calcium-channel blockers, and cardioactives may increase the arrhythmogenic potential of terfenadine. Due to the diuretic action of this herb the following drug interactions are possible: increased risk of toxicity with anti-inflammatory analgesics; if hypokalemia occurs possible antagonism with antiarrhythmics and potentiation of muscle relaxants; antagonizes antidiabetic (hypoglycemic) drugs; may potentiate and/or interfere with antihypertensives; may potentiate lithium therapy; when taken with corticosteroids there is a risk for hypokalemia; may potentiate other diuretics and increase the risk of hypokalemia. Due to the antihypertensive (hypotensive) action of this herb the following interactions are possible: when taken with anesthetics an increased hypotensive effect; potentiation of antihypertensives; when taken with diuretics difficulty with diuresis and hypertension may result; antagonism of sympathomimetics.

    Safety: Safe when used appropriately.

    Side Effects: (Possible adverse effects and/or overdose effects) Possible nausea, difficulty breathing, fatigue, sweating, rash on the hands. May cause arrhythmia and congestive heart failure. Large doses may cause CNS depression and hypotention.

    Warning: Take immediately after a meal in order to avoid nausea.

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